Franka Emika Panda in Gazebo with ROS and Docker

In my last post I’ve written about creating Gazebo packages from the existing panda models and mentioned that I’m also working on a docker image that includes ROS. Well here it is 🙂 You can check out the GitHub repository (be sure to leave a star if you like it), and – assuming you have an operating docker host – it should be very straight forward to set up.

Since I spent way too much time fixing dependencies and writing configuration files, I would like to share my experience (and of course the code :P) so that the solutions to the problems I encountered along the way are in one place.

High Level Overview

Before diving into the setup of the individual parts, I want to quickly talk about how the various components interact. This overview will make it easier to understand what each system is trying to accomplish, and what it expects.

A high level overview of how Panda is controlled in Gazebo. The simulator replaces the real robot at the level above the controllers (i.e. they use different controllers).

Contrary to my initially guess – that I could simply extend the Gazebo package I created earlier – I found that it is easier to start completely from scratch for this image. The logic here is that the robot will be spawned into Gazebo from ROS, and hence it makes sense to properly integrate things into the ROS architecture. This means using .urdf to describe the robot model, instead of .sdf files like I did in the previous post. It also means that I settled for one model – the robot with the gripper – although support for both versions can be added.

The main pipeline goes from MoveIt via ROS Control to Gazebo. MoveIt receives a goal pose and plans a trajectory to it. It then sends position commands to ROS control which sets targets for a series of PID controllers. These controllers are what steer the simulated joints in Gazebo. Gazebo then sends the joint encoder readings back to the ROS framework, where they are picked up by the PID controllers to stabilize the robot, MoveIt to decide the next step of the trajectory, and RViZ to visualize the robot. MoveIt and Gazebo both use the .urdf I generated in the last post, and I got the controller parameters from Erdal Pekel’s blog post.

ROS Control and Stabilizing the Robot

In retrospect getting the controllers to work is quite easy. While configuring it, it was quite annoying, because they didn’t seem to be loading properly. The issue was dependencies 🙂 Before I go into the packages needed to connect ROS control to gazebo, however, I want to show you the config file that I used to set the PID controls. I got this file from Erdal Pekel’s Blog who spend quite a bit of time tuning those numbers. Amazing job!

PID parameters for the low-level joint controllers

To get these controllers to actually control the simulation, we can start them with a single line in the launch file, and point them to the `panda_controller.yaml`. To communicate with gazebo, however, they will need the `gazebo_ros_control` package, which doesn’t seem to ship with `gazebo_ros` nor with `ros_control`. Additionally the default ros container doesn’t ship with any controllers, so I had to install the effort controllers in the `effort_controllers` package, but also the `joint-trajectory-controller` which will install provide the controllers mentioned in above file. I didn’t test if the other effort controllers are necessary, so there might be a dependency on which this doesn’t actually depend.

If the low-level controllers are working properly, the arm in the simulation should freeze in a position that is different from the one it will settle in based on gravity. Usually, the simulation starts, and the arm falls. Then – a short while later – the controllers finish loading and stabilize the arm in some (slightly awkward) position.

Creating the MoveIt configuration

The MoveIt package in the repository (called `panda_moveit`) is the result of me using the moveit setup wizzard with the generated .urdf file. Initially, I tried using the official `panda_moveit_config` package, but failed to get things to work for two key reasons: (1) the official moveit config is meant for the physical robot, which uses controllers unsupported by Gazebo. This mismatch in controllers is detrimental. (2) I (unknowingly) chose a different naming convention in the .urdf compared to the officially used one. This can be fixed by me renaming things, but at this point I had already found out about reason (1), and thought I can keep it if I have to create my own config anyway.

To create this package, I followed the MoveIt Setup Assistant Tutorial, trying to stick as close to the existing `panda_moveit_config` as possible. For example, I included the ‘ready’ pose that panda uses to give the robot a default state 🙂

One file that I had to add manually to the generated configuration to get it to work was a config file for the MoveIt controllers. This tells MoveIT which controller groups it should use to actuate which motors, and what messages to send to the ROS control nodes. I then had to replace the `panda_moveit_controller_manager.launch.xml` with the newly created ones.

The controller configuration for MoveIt

To start MoveIt and the planning context together with Gazebo, I added the `move_group.launch` file to the launch file in the `panda_gazebo` package. I didn’t touch the other launch files that the moveit setup assistant generated; hence, they are likely in a broken state.

Controlling the Simulator from RViZ

Finally, and to add some icing on the cake, controlling the Gazebo simulation through RViZ provides a very good test if everything is working as it should. I added the RViZ node to the launch file in the `panda_gazebo` package. After launching the file and waiting for everything to load, I created a layout in RViZ, configured it to my liking, and stored the layout as an .rviz config file. I then added this file as an argument to the launch options for the RViZ node.

A strange situation that I encountered here was that the static frame RViZ tries to use as reference in the global settings was set to `map` instead of `world`. I’m not 100% sure why the default is map, but if it is set to this, the interactive markers won’t show for panda’s endeffector.

With all this in place, I can now use the interact handles to drag the robot into a desired goal position and click ‘plan and execute’.

Putting It All Together in Docker

After all this work of assembling the pieces into a working pipeline, I thought I can take some additional time to alleviate some of the pain others may have when setting this up; especially the pain that comes from missing dependencies. As a result, I decided to create a docker image that is portable and will set all this up for you.

The Dockerfile itself is very short:

Dockerfile used to generate the image

It just installs the necessary ROS packages (it is totally my own stupidity, but I can’t stress enough how much time I wasted figuring out which packages I need), adds the workspace created above, and then modifies the image’s entrypoint to lay the catkin workspace over the default ROS workspace.

One interesting thing happens in line 16, where I fix a bug that is very unique to gazebo in docker. As a container starts ‘fresh’ gazebo doesn’t have any models downloaded, which means it will download the two models it needs to create ``. This costs time and, unfortunately, interacts with ROS control in such a way that the controllers crash. To correct this, I pre-populate gazebo’s model cache with the models it needs.

The other file I use for building the image is the build script:

Build script for the docker image

The script is again very short. Line 4 generates the .urdf file from the .xacro file (a process I used in my post on how to get panda into Gazebo). Line 7 is interesting, because we spin up a clean ROS image to build the catkin workspace that we created, and then use those generated files to add them to the final image. Arguably this could be solved more elegantly via multi-stage builds; however, I learned about this feature after implementing things this way. Thus I will leave it as is until a future refactor, and will use multi-stage builds in future images.

That’s it! These posts usually take my entire weekend to write. If you think they are good, be sure to to like the post, and leave a star on my GitHub repository. This way I know that writing these is a worthy use of my time.

Happy coding!

H5-Index of HRI Venues

H5-Index of various venues typically targeted by researchers in HRI

I got bored during a late Saturday evening, so I decided to query Scopus for the last 5 years of publications for major venues in HRI. After aggregating all this data, I wanted to look at the impact factor and related metrics of these papers. However, I realized only afterwards that I can’t calculate the impact factor from the data I gathered. Instead I did the next best thing, computed the H5 scores for all the venues, and rank ordered them by this score. Maybe this graph is useful to some 🙂

Thank you for reading, and (although there is no programming here) happy coding!

Franka Emika Panda in Gazebo (without ROS using Docker)

Screenshot of the panda arm with and without gripper attachment.

The background for this post is that I am currently visiting ISIR, and I’ve started a new project working with the panda robot by Franka Emika. Unfortunately, we only have a single physical robot, and we are 2 PhDs using it for different experiments. To minimize downtime, I am, hence, setting up a simulator for it, and, to facilitate reusability, I decided to go with a Docker based setup.

The image is available on GitHub and called panda_sim. You can clone it, build it, and see how it works for you. While I tried to keep ROS out of this, the current model still loads the gazebo ros plugin for control. If I get around to it, I will remove this dependency in a future version, to get it completely ROS independent.

I am currently working on a ROS based image that runs a Gazebo server and a ROS controller for the robot with gripper. This way, you can easily spin up a simulator for your robot behavior. You can even do that in parallel for some epic deep reinforcement learning action.

Preparing the Robot Model

To use Panda in the simulator, we need to convert the existing model into .sdf format. While Gazebo can work with .urdf files, this requires a parallel ROS installation, which we try to avoid. Internally, the .urdf is converted to .sdf anyway, so we might as well supply .sdf and save the dependency.

Screenshot of the location of the .xacro files on GitHub.

First, we need to get the model from franka_ros which is located in the `franka_description` folder. It is a .urdf model, so in order to use it in Gazebo, we need to add some additional information such as joint inertia, or that the arm should be attached rigidly to the world frame. Erdal Pekel also has a tutorial how to bring Panda into Gazebo (using ROS). I used his numbers and suggestions to modify the files.

Next, as we are ripping out the model from an existing ROS package, we will also need to update the paths in the .urdf. In particular, I removed `$(find franka_description)/robots/` in both the `panda_arm.urdf.xacro` and the `panda_arm_hand.urdf.xacro`, and changed the `robot_name` to panda. I also changed the `description_pkg` value to `panda_arm_hand` or `panda_arm` in the `panda_arm.xacro`, depending on the model; this name of the package needs to match the name of the model folder (see below). In `hand.xacro` the value for description_pkg is hardcoded, so I introduced the description_pkg variable, and set it appropriately.

Converting .xacro to .sdf

After doing all the necessary modifications, we need to convert the .xacro to a .urdf. Docker can again be incredibly helpful, as we can spin up a throw away ROS instance, do our conversion, and save the result on the host:

docker run -v <path/to/modified>/franka_description:/xacro osrf/ros:kinetic-desktop-full rosrun xacro xacro --inorder /xacro/robots/panda_arm_hand.urdf.xacro > panda_arm_hand.urdf

Next, we want to convert the model to a .sdf. This is again solved in an easy one liner using docker:

docker run -v <path/to/generated/urdf>:/urdf gazebo:latest gz sdf -p /urdf/panda.urdf > model.sdf

Assembling the Model

Finally, all that is left is to assemble the pieces into a full Gazebo model of Panda. For this we create a new folder called `panda` and copy the meshes folder and the model.sdf in there. We then create a `models.config` to describe the model to Pandas as follows

The model.config file

Here is the folder structure:

|  |__collision
|  |  |__files from franka_description
|  |__visual
|     |__files from franka_description

Copying this folder into ~/.gazebo/models will make it available to Gazebo. To pack it into a docker image, I wrote a small script in `` that will construct the above model and then build a docker image with the models already installed. The script will create a tmp folder where it stores the fully constructed models, so you can also run the script and get just the models, if that’s what you need.

Thank you for reading, and happy coding! If you liked this article, and would like to hear more ROS, Gazebo, or Panda related stuff, consider giving this post a like, or leaving me a comment 🙂

How to play custom animations during speech on a NAO (or Pepper)

I’ve been asked multiple times now how to sync animations and speech on a NAO – or Pepper for that matter; especially from Python.

The answer to that is, there are two options:

  1. The first one is to create the animation in Choreograph and then export it to a python script. You then create your usual handle to the text-to-speech module, but instead of calling the say method directly, e.g., `tts.say(“Hello”)`, you call it through the module’s `post` method, e.g.,“Hello”). This method exists for every function in the API and essentially just makes a non-blocking call. You can then call your animation.
  2. You create a custom animation in Choreograph, upload it to the robot, and call it through AnimatedSay or QiChat. Other than being the, I think, cleaner solution, it allows you more fine grained control over when in the sentence the animation starts and when it should stop. This is what I will describe in more detail below.

Step 1: Create the Animation


Fairly straight forward, and the same for both solutions. You use Choreograph to create a new Timeline box in which you create the animation that you would like. You then connect the timeline box to the input and output of the behavior and make sure it works as you’d expect when you press the green play button.

Step 2: Configure the Project and Upload it to the Robot

In this step, you configure the new animation to be deployed as an app on the robot.


Go to the properties of the project.


Then make sure to select a minimum naoqi version (for NAO 2.1, for Pepper 2.5), the supported models (usually any model of either NAO or Pepper respectively) and set the ID of the Application. We will use this when calling the animations, so choose something snappy, yet memorable. Finally, it is always nice to add a small Description.


Next, we need to reorganize the app a bit. Create a new folder and name it after your animation; again, we will use this name to call our behavior, so make sure it’s descriptive. Then move the behavior that contains your animation – by default called behavior1.xar – into the folder you just created, and rename it to behavior.xar .


Finally, connect to your robot and use the first button in the bottom right corner to upload the app you just created to your robot.

Step 3: Use ALAnimatedSpeech from Python

Note: If you don’t want NAO to use the random gestures it typically uses when speaking in animated speech, consider setting the BodyLanguageMode to disabled. You can still play animations, but it won’t automatically start any.

For existing animations – that come with the robot by default – you call the animation like this

"Hello! ^start(animations/Stand/Gestures/Hey_1) Nice to meet you!"

Now, animations is nothing but an app that is installed on the robot. You can even see listed it in the bottom right corner of Choreograph. Inside the app, there are folders for the different stable poses of NAO like Stand, or Sit, which are again divided into types of animations, e.g., Gestures which you can see above. Inside these folders there is, yet another, folder named after the animation (Hey_1), inside of which is a behavior file called behavior.xar.

We have essentially recreated this structure in our own app and installed it right next to the animations app. So, we can call our own animations using the exact same logic:

"Hello! ^start(pacakge_name/animation_name) Nice to meet you!"

It also works with all the other aspects of the ALAnimatedSpeech module, so ^stop, ^wait, ^run, will work just as fine. You can also assign tags to your animations and then make it choose random animations for that tag group.

Finally, please be aware that the robot will return to it’s last specified pose after finishing an animation. Hence, if you want the robot to wait in a different position after the animation finished, you will have to do that by creating a custom posture. I have some comments on that here: The hidden potential of NAO and Pepper – Custom Robot Postures in naoqi v2.4

I hope this will be useful to some of you. Please feel free to like, share, or leave a comment below.

Happy coding!

The hidden potential of NAO and Pepper – Custom Robot Postures in naoqi v2.4


Our lab owns robots build by SoftBank that we use for experiments; we have a Pepper and some NAOs. At the moment, I’m working on a NAO.

NAO looking at a Tower of Hanoi

They are quite pretty robots. I mean, they can barely walk around, let alone navigate the environment, they can’t do proper grasping, the build-in CPU is so slow and hogged by the default modules, and streaming video from the robot for remote processing happens at about 5 FPS. So you can’t really do any of the things you would expect you can do, but hey, they look really cool 😀

Okay, jokes aside, the manufacturing of the robots is actually pretty solid. Being able to get your hands on a biped for about 6000€ is solid, and, despite some stability issues, it can walk – however, nobody really uses that feature in social robotics research. They also come with a huge sensor array, that makes every smartphone jealous. Hardware wise both, NAO and Pepper, are good robots.

The thing that is lacking – by a landslide – is the software. The robots come with an API, but that API is proprietary – in itself, not a problem. The problem starts where the documentation ends. Documentation is shaky, disorganized, not very clear, and – for all the cool parts – nonexistent. In short, you don’t get to read the code and you don’t get good documentation to help you either; hence, if something breaks, you are blind and deaf somewhere in the forest of code and have to find the way out yourself.

Pepper can grasp, it can do navigation, and you can stream video data at a decent FPS – the same is true for NAO; it can do all the things I just complained about. You just have to write the code yourself.

This is what I will talk about in this post. I will not go into grasping or walking, but we will look into navigating the joint space more efficiently. That is, we will have a more in-depth look at ALRobotPosture, some of the hidden / undocumented functions, and how we can use this module for some pretty sick motion planning.

Note: Everything in this post works for both NAO and Pepper. For ease of reading, I will only reference the NAO, because – I think – that is the robot most people reading this will own.

ALRobotPosture, an Overview

If you own either a NAO or a Pepper, you have probably noticed that, when you turn (and autonomous life activates) it on, it moves into a certain pose. For Pepper, it is always the same, for the NAO, it depends if it was turned on sitting or standing. This is RobotPosture in action. The same is true after we play an animation. Once it finishes, NAO moves back into a specific pose, waiting for the next command.

This is the most visible action of the module. When no other movement task is running, it will move the NAO into a stable position. The other thing it does, is it transitions between these stable poses. For example, when you want NAO to either sit down or stand up, then it doesn’t play an animation. It actually uses RobotPosture to navigate the joint space from one stable posture to another until it reaches the Sit or Stand posture respectively.

In essence, RobotPosture is a list of configurations – points in joint space – that serve as stable positions the robot can move into. These points are connected; there is a neighbor relationship between them. They are also attractive; hence, when no other motion is running, NAO will move into the closest posture (closeness being defined as closeness in joint space).

The interesting part is that movement between poses is not done as a direct line in joint space. This could be rather dangerous, since the robot would just fall, if it would move in a straight line from the Stand to Sit. Instead, planning is done in the topological map – a directed graph -, that is defined by the poses and their neighbors. NAO then moves in a (joint space) direct line from the current pose to a neighboring pose and goes through different poses until it reaches the final, desired pose.

I visualized the standard poses in Figure 1. Additionally, there is the USRLookAtTower pose, which is a custom posture I’ve added for a project I’m working on. You can also see it in the picture I chose for the beginning of the post. It looks a lot like normal sitting, but the head is tilted downwards. I will walk you through how I did that in the next section. I also color coded the sitting and standing postures, because they are the most used – but mainly because it looks nice 🙂 .

Figure 1: Visualization of the available postures on a NAO v4. The distances between nodes roughly correspond to the euclidean distance in joint space. Big nodes are targets for ALRobotPosture.goToPosture(), small nodes are used for the transition. Blue nodes belong to the family Sitting and red nodes belong to the family Standing.

The graph is laid out using force-directed graph drawing, where the force corresponds to the euclidean distance between nodes in joint space. However, I took a bit of liberty to prevent label overlap. As you can see, there is no direct connection between Sit and Stand; the robot would move through unstable territory. (We could, however, add such trajectories ourselves, creating a fast, dynamic stand up motion – e.g., for robot football.)

Another advantage of this approach is that it is very computationally efficient. Since we have an abstract map of how poses are connected, we can quickly figure out if a pose is reachable, and compute a path to that given pose.

Enough theory, show some code already! Okay … okay. Here is how to use the basics of the module:

The snippet will make the robot run through all the available poses and announce the pose’s name once there. This is about the best you can do with the official part of ALRobotPosture; not that much.

Hidden Features

There is a lot more functionality in the module. There just isn’t any documentation of it on the web. We can look at all the methods in a module via:

Alternatively we can use qicli (with the parameter –hidden) to list all the functions in a similar fashion. Qicli is documented here.

Here we can find a few very promising functions:

_isRobotInPosture(string, float, float)

This function is similar to getRobotPosture(). However, instead of giving the current posture, it gives a boolean that is true if the robot is in the given posture. The two floats are threshold values for the joint angles and stiffness. That is, by how much is the current pose allowed to deviate from the defined pose for us to consider them the same.

It returns a triple of (bool, [bool] * 26, [bool] * 2) on a NAO robot. The first boolean tells us if the pose has been reached overall, the second is a breakdown if the pose has been reached for each joint. Finally, the last array is the same for stiffness.

This function is useful if two poses are close together. In this case getRobotPosture() may not show the correct pose; however, we can still differentiate with _isRobotInPosture().


Make your own network of postures, export it, use this to upload it to an army of NAOs, and dominate the world.

Given a serialized graph of poses, it will load it and replace the current posture graph. The string is the (relative) path to the file. It returns a boolean indicating if the loading has succeeded.

Important: The file path is relative to ~/.local/share/naoqi/robot_posture on the robot, so the posture file has to be stored in that directory on the robot.


This is a strange one. While not immediately useful to us, it will re-generate a Cartesian map that the module uses internally to navigate between poses. You have to call this after loading a new posture library or adding individual postures. Otherwise the new postures won’t work!


Pretty self explanatory. Look up the id of the posture using it’s name. Takes the name of the posture and returns an integer that is the id.


Takes a posture id and returns a boolean. True if the posture is reachable from the current robot pose.


The string is the name that we want to save the file as and it will be saved under ~/.local/share/naoqi/robot_posture on the robot.

_addNeighbourToPosture(int, int, float)

Adds a vertex to the graph pointing from the first posture (indexed by the first int) to the second posture. The third value is the cost of traversing along this edge, which can be used for more sophisticated path planning.

_saveCurrentPostureWithName(int, string)

Saves the current pose as an edge with ID int and name string.


Custom Poses

Putting all these together, we can create custom poses as follows:

  1. Use the Animation Mode (or any other method) to move NAO into the desired pose
  2. _saveCurrentPostureWithName() to add the node to the graph
  3. _addNeighbourToPosture() to connect it to the graph (edges are directed! we have to add both ways)
  4. export the postures via _savePostureLibrary() (this will save the file in the correct place)
  5. In our code: import our custom poses using _loadPostureLibraryFromName()
  6. re-generate the cartesian map _generateCartesianMap()
  7. goToPosture()

Here is a code snippet that adds a custom posture called “myPosture”, exports the library, imports it, makes the robot sit down, and then go into “myPosture”.

And just for good measure, a video showing what the robot does when running the snippet:

Naturally, you can be more fancy with this. I am particularly excited about the possibility to do dynamic movements, i.e., one-way trajectories. However, my supervisor will probably kill me if I actually dabble in this area, because the chances of breaking a NAO like this are … elevated.

I hope this article is useful. If you liked it, feel free to leave a like, comment, or follow this blog! I will keep posting tutorials in the area of robotics, AI, and social robotics research.

Happy coding!

Questback + MTurk — No more survey codes with ExternalQuestions


A few weeks ago, I ran my first pilot study on Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk).

Essentially, MTurk is a platform that you can use to label data and get participants for studies (using money). There is of course more that can be done here, but from my current understanding, these seem to be the two main uses in academia.

The completion of a survey usually takes the following form:

  1. A worker / participant on MTurk accepts the work and is presented a link to the survey.
  2. The worker copies his unique, anonymized workerID into the survey (so that you can reference the data)
  3. The worker completes the survey and is presented a unique random code at the end
  4. The worker copies the code into a form on MTurk’s website.
  5. You match the IDs of workers that completed the survey with IDs in your database and reward workers for their time

You used MTurk before? This sounds familiar? Yes – however, two parts in this chain are rather weak: (1) the manual copying of the workerID and (2) the generation, matching, and copying of the random code at the end. If either of these fails, you have to work out manually if a worker has participated or not.


As you have already guessed, there is a better way to do this (why else would I be writing about this? :D). MTurk offers to host a so called ExternalQuestion, which allows you to embed a custom website via an <iframe>. On top, it passes some meta information, such as the workerID, to the website; all you need to do is read that info and use the value as you see fit. Additionally, it allows the website to submit a form back to MTurk as proof of having completed the work, which we will do at the end of the survey.

In short, we integrate the survey directly into MTurk thereby getting rid of above pitfalls. It roughly follows these steps:

  1. Create the Survey on the survey tool (in this case Questback)
  2. Create a small adapter website on GitHub (may not be needed if you have a different survey tool)
    • this will accept and forward requests from Mturk
    • allow you to create an arbitrary preview of the survey
    • pipe the form back to MTurk when the survey is finished
  3. Add URL parameters to the survey
  4. forward people to the adapter website upon completion
  5. Host an external question pointing to the adapter website on GitHub

Small Adapter Website on GitHub

At first, I tried to link Questback and MTurk directly; then I discovered two limitations making this impossible: (1) Questback only accepts URL parameters named “a=..&b=..&c=..” instead of full variable names, and (2) Questback can not post the results of a form; I could only find forwarding via GET.

Hence, I set up a small website hosted on GitHub to do the plumbing between both websites.

Note: If you are working with the sandbox, you have to change the mturk_url appropriately.

This does 3 things, depending on how it is called:

  1. if the URL contains a parameter called “returnToMTurk” then we assume that the Questback is forwarding to this website via GET. In this case we take the payload (in this case attentionCheckPassed) and forward it to MTurk as a POST request.
  2. if the URL contains ASSIGNMENT_ID_NOT_AVAILABLE it means that the survey is being previewed. In this case we do nothing and show this website, which will act as the preview of the survey (e.g. display a screenshot of the hit or some other, relevant information to inform people what this task is about). Note that you want to avoid people submitting your survey at this stage, so showing them the raw survey may be counterproductive at this stage.
  3. Otherwise the website is called from MTurk by a worker who wants to complete the survey; in this case we rename the URL parameters from their actual names into a, b, c, d and forward the request to the Questback survey.

Add URL parameters to the survey

In Questback this can be done in the survey properties > User-defined variables.


As mentioned before, the URL parameters will have names a,b,c, … and can be accessed in the survey tool via #p_0001#, #p_0002#, #p_0003#, … .

Forward People to the GitHub Adapter Upon Completion

This is easily done in the properties section of the final page under Questionnaire editor > Final Page > Properties > Redirect to Survey .

URL forwarding questback

The address should point to the GitHub Adapter and the URL should include three parameters: (1) the assignmentID sent from MTurk, (2)-this is really important– at least one additional parameter to store in MTurk as the result of the task and (3) the “returnToMTurk” parameter used to tell the adapter what to do. An example of a URL could look like this

Note that the assignmentID is set to #p_0001# which is the the first parameter (“a“) passed to the survey from MTurk. In above example attentionCheckPassed is a variable from the survey which we used to determine if participants payed attention or just mindlessly filled out the survey. This is an aggregate of multiple questions and computed by the survey tool upon completion of the survey. This can later be used to automatically accept / reject / ban workers that have completed the assignment.

It is also important to note that MTurk expects the assignmentID and at least one additional parameter to be send through the form’s POST request. For some reason, the additional parameter is mentioned nowhere in the documentation, but, instead, tacitly assumed.

Additionally, the checkbox next to the phrase Automatically add ospe.php3 to URL  and Add return ticket have to be disabled. You would use these if you were forwarding / returning to another ESF survey; this isn’t the case here.

Host an External Question Pointing to the GitHub Adapter

All that is left is to actually host a task on MTurk. In this case an External Question.

Unfortunately, this is currently impossible to do through the web UI. Hence, we have to use the API; I decided to do it in Python by adapting a code snippet that I found on the web. It consists of two files: (1), which stores the credentials, and (2) which creates the actual hit.

That’s it. Running the code will create a HIT that will point to the website on GitHub, which itself points to our survey. The survey will point back to the GitHub website, which will point back to MTurk, going full circle. Neat!

As always, I hope this is useful to some of you and feel free to drop a comment or reach out to me if you have questions.

Self-Signed SSL Certificates with IP SAN v2.0 — This time in Docker

For the love of all things good; there is two things I don’t like: (1) unnecessary convoluted setups and (2) redoing work I’ve done earlier. SSL Certificates seem to combine both into one beautifully painful mess.

I once again found myself in the need to generate a throwaway SSL certificate for local development and testing. As I’ve posted earlier there is a way to do that with more or less effort. Since I found myself doing this for the third time now I decided to spice things up a bit, cutting down the time it takes. I’ve created a small docker container that’s sole purpose it is to create a certificate from a given config file. The way it works is:

  1. Create a folder (e.g. ./certs) and place the below config file (named config.cfg) into it.
  2. Modify the config file, adding all the SANs required for this certificate
  3. docker run –rm -it -v./certs:/certs firefoxmetzger/create_ssl

That’s it. It will drop a `private.key` and `certificate.crt` into the previously created folder. It will also print the properties of the certificate into console so you can make sure the SANs are actually added.

Here is the config.cfg template

And here a link to the GitHub repo with the code of the docker image: